¿Qué son los ajustes razonables? 

Ajustes razonables es un término utilizado principalmente en el ámbito de la educación y se refiere a las modificaciones y adaptaciones necesarias, que no impongan una carga desproporcionada o indebida, que permitan a las personas compensar alguna deficiencia que les impida el goce o ejercicio, en igualdad de condiciones con las demás, de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales. Por ejemplo, efectuar adaptaciones en la organización de un ambiente de trabajo o un salón de clases a fin de eliminar los obstáculos que impidan a una persona con discapacidad participar en una actividad o recibir servicios en igualdad de condiciones con los demás.

Este término tiene su origen en lo que se denominaba adecuaciones curriculares, que estaban orientadas a servir como herramientas en educación para ayudar a los alumnos con necesidades educativas especiales, esto desde un enfoque de integración, que centraba la atención en la deficiencia del alumno y buscaba que éste se pudiera adaptar a su entorno.

Desde el enfoque de inclusión, se observa que uno de los principales problemas del sistema educativo moderno es que, al tener que utilizar un modelo estandarizado para todos los alumnos, no tiene en cuenta las diferencias individuales de estos. Los ajustes razonables servirían para corregir en cierta medida este fallo del sistema.

Al contrario de lo que se piensa habitualmente, esta herramienta es aplicable no solo a los alumnos con un bajo rendimiento académico, sino también a todos aquellos con unas necesidades concretas. Estos alumnos pueden ir desde personas con una discapacidad física hasta aquellos con aptitudes sobresalientes o talentos específicos.

Existen principalmente tres tipos de ajustes razonables: de acceso al currículo, individuales, y para el alumnado con altas capacidades.

Los ajustes de acceso consisten en modificar ciertos aspectos del método de enseñanza, de forma que los alumnos con alguna particularidad física o cognitiva puedan acceder a lo que todos sus demás compañeros tienen acceso; materiales educativos (libros de texto adaptados), a los espacios escolares por medio de rampas o mobiliario adaptado, etc.

Los ajustes de tipo individuales serán esos cambios en el currículo educativo realizados para adaptar los conocimientos a adquirir al nivel de cada alumno. Pueden estar relacionados con el tiempo que puede utilizar un alumno para realizar un examen, el tipo de ejercicios que debe realizar o la manera de impartir la clase, hasta otras más significativas como la modificación de los aprendizajes esperados del grado que cursa, los propósitos de enseñanza de una asignatura o los métodos utilizados para la evaluación.

Los ajustes para alumnos con aptitudes sobresalientes y talentos específicos tienen la finalidad de promover en ellos el logro de su máximo potencial. Se pueden incluir tareas más desafiantes o que requieran otro tipo de habilidades, como la investigación y la creatividad, proyectos especiales o su integración en programas de ciencia promovidos por instituciones externas.

Sin duda que todos los alumnos requieren algun tipo de ajuste que le permita aprender mejor, desarrollar nuevas habilidades o facilitar ciertos procesos por lo que es tarea de los padres y maestros ser muy observadores para lograr dar a cada quien lo que requiere bajo el principio de equidad, recordando que … 

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